伟德注册伟德注册写作的伟德备用网址伟德官网伟德开户

时刻:2017-06-14 伟德注册写作 我要投稿

  BETVICTOR是伟德伟德网址伟德国际的进程,而写作便是伟德伟德网址在答复疑问的进程,以下是小编搜集整理的伟德注册伟德注册写作的伟德备用网址伟德官网伟德开户,欢迎阅览检查。

  前语部分

  1.1 怎样指出当时研讨的缺乏以及有意图地引导出自己的研讨的重要性

  一般在叙说了前人效果之后,用However来引导缺乏,比方

  However, little information...

  little attention has been devoted to…

  little work...

  little data / little research

  or few studies / investigations / few attempts have been don on…

  or none of these studies

  has (have) been less

  done on ... / focused on / attempted to

  conducted / investigated / studied

  (with respect to)

  OR To the author's knowledge... There is little information available in literature about...

  Until recently, there is some lack of knowledge about...

  Previous research (studies, records) has (have)

  failed to consider

  ignored

  misinterpreted

  neglected to

  overestimated, underestimated

  misleaded

  thus, these previous results are

  inconclusive / misleading…

  unsatisfactory / questionable /controversial..

  Uncertainties (discrepancies) still exist ...

  必定要注意必定不能全面否定前人的效果,即便在你看来前人的定论彻底不对。这是前人作业最起码的尊重,英文叫做给他人的作业credits.

  所以文章不要呈现十分negative的点评,比方Their results are wrong, very questionable, have no commonsense, etc.

  能够悠扬地提出:

  Their studies may be more reasonable if they had considered this situation.

  Their results could be better convinced if they ...

  Or Their conclusion may remain some uncertainties.

  1.2.之后引导出一种新办法,或许一种新方向。

  假如研讨的办法以及方向和前人相同,能够经过下面的办法着重自己作业的效果:

  However, data is still scarce

  rare

  less accurate

  there is still dearth of

  We need to / aim to / have to

  provide more documents / data / records / studies

  increase the dataset

  Further studies are still necessary... / essential...

  为了着重自己研讨的重要性,一般还要在However之前介绍自己研讨问题的反方面,另一方面等等, 比方:

  1)时刻问题

  假如你研讨的问题时刻上比较新,你就能够许多提及对时刻较老的问题的研讨及重要性,然后说(However),对时刻标准比较新的问题研讨缺乏

  2)物性及研讨手法问题

  假如你要运用一种新手法或许研讨方向,你能够提出当时比较盛行的办法以及物质性质,然后说对你所研讨的方向和办法,研讨甚少。

  3)研讨区域问题

  首要伟德开户相邻区域或许其它区域的研讨,然后着重这一区域研讨缺乏

  4)不确定性

  尽管前人对这一问题研讨许多,可是现在有两种或许更多种的观念,这种uncertanties, ambiguities,值得进一步弄清

  5)提出自己的假设来验证

  假如自己的研讨彻底是新的,没有前人的作业进行比照,在这种状况下,你能够自傲地说,依据提出的进程,存在这种或许的效果,本文便是要证明这种效果。

  We aim to test the feasibility (reliability) of the ...

  It is hoped that the question will be resolved (fall away) with our proposed method (approach).

  1.3.怎样提出自己的观念

  We aim to…

  This paper reports on…

  provides results..

  extends the method…

  focus on..

  The purpose of this paper is to..

  Furthermore, Moreover, In addition,, we will also discuss...

  1.4.圈定自己的研讨规模

  前语的别的伟德效果便是告知读者包含(reviewer)你的文章首要研讨内容。假如处理欠好,reviewer会提出严峻的主张,比方你没有考虑某种或许性,某种研讨手法等等。为了削减这种争辩,在前语的结束你就要明晰提出本文研讨的规模:

  1)时刻标准问题

  假如你的问题触及比较长的时序,你能够明晰地提出本文只关怀这一时刻规模的问题。

  We preliminarily focus on the older (younger)...

  或许有两种时刻标准的问题 (long-term and short term),你能够说两者都重要,可是本文只触及其间一种

  2) 研讨区域的问题

  和时刻问题相同,明晰提出你只关怀这一区域

  1.5.最终的原场

  在前语的最终,还能够伟德开户性地提出,这一研讨对其它研讨的协助。

  或许说,further studies on ... will be summarized in our next study (or elsewhere)

  总归,其意图便是让读者把思路会集到你要评论的问题上来。削减争辩(arguments).

  2. 怎样提出观念

  在提出自己的观念时,采纳什么样的战略很重要。不合适的语句一般会遭到reviewer的怀疑。

  1)假如观念不是这篇文章最新提出的,一般要用

  We confirm that...

  2)关于自己很自傲的观念,可用

  We believe that...

  3)在更一般的状况下,由数据推断出必定的定论,

  用, Results indicate, infer, suggest, imply that...

  4) 在及其特别的状况才能够用We put forward (discover, observe..) .. "for the first time".

  来着重自己的立异。

  5) 假如自己对所提出的观念不彻底必定,可用

  We tentatively put forward (interpret this to..)

  Or The results may be due to (caused by)/ attributed to / resulted from..

  Or It seems that .. can account for (interpret) this..

  要注意这些结构要合理调配。假如通篇是类型1)和5),那这篇文章的含义就大打折扣。假如满是2),必定会遭到怀疑。所以要仔细剖析自己效果的立异性以及可信度。

  3. 衔接词与逻辑

  写英文伟德注册最常见的伟德缺点便是文章的逻辑不清楚。处理的办法有:

  1)语句上下要有衔接,不能让语句之间独立

  常见的衔接词语有,

  also, in addition, afterwards, moreover, Furthermore, further,

  However, although, unlike, in contrast, Unfortunately,

  Similarly, alternatively, parallel results, Compared with other results,

  In order to, despite, For example

  consequently, thus, therefore...

  用好这些衔接词,能够使观念表达得有层次,愈加明晰。

  比方,假如叙说有时刻次序的事情或许文献,

  最早的文献可用AA advocated it for the first time.

  接下来,可用Then BB further demonstrated that..

  再接下来,可用Afterwards, CC..

  假如还有,可用More recent studies by DD..

  假如叙说两种观念,要把它们截然分隔

  AA put forward that........ In contrast, BB believe

  or Unlike AA, BB suggest…

  or On the contrary (标明前面的观念过错,假如仅仅标明两种敌对的观念,用in contrast),BB..

  假如两种观念附近,可用

  AA suggest ….. Similarly ( alternatively), BB..

  Or Also, BB…

  or BB also does …

  标明因果或许前后联系,可用 Consequently, therefore, as a result,

  标明递进联系,可用furthermore, further, moreover, in addition,

  当写完一段英文,最好首要检查一下是否较好地运用了这些衔接词。

  2) 阶段的全体逻辑

  常常咱们要叙说伟德问题的几个方面。这种状况下,必定要注意逻辑结构。

  首要榜首段要明晰告知读者你要评论几个部份

  ...Therefore, there are three aspects of this problem have to be addressed.

  The first question involves...

  The second problem relates to …

  The third aspect deals with...

  上面的比如能够明晰地把观念逐层叙说。

  Or, 能够直接用First, Second, Third..... Finally,..

  当然,Furthermore, in addition等能够用来弥补阐明。

  4. 正文部份的全体结构

  小标题是比较好的办法把要评论的问题分为几个片段。

  一般榜首个片段指出文章最为重要的数据与定论。弥补阐明的部份能够放在最终伟德片段。

  必定要理解文章的读者会分为多个层次。文章除了本专业的专业人士读懂以外,必定要想办法能让更多的外专业人读懂。所以能够把评论部份分为两部份,一部份提出观念,另一部份具体介绍进程以及论说的依据。这样专业外的人士能够了解文章的首要观念,比较专业的评论他能够把它当成黑箱子,而这一部份本专业人士能够进一步研讨。

  5. 关于abbreviation

  假如文章用了许多的Abbreviation, 两种办法加以处理

  1) 在文章最好加上个Appendix,把一切Abbreviation列表

  2) 在不同的页面上,不时地给出Abbreviation的含义,用来提示读者。

  总归,写文章的意图是要让读者读懂,读得明晰,而且采纳各种办法方便于读者。

  Discussion 部分 时态

  (a) 指出效果在哪些图表中列出,常用一般现在时。如:Figure 2 shows the variation in the temperature of the samples over time.

  (b) 叙说或伟德开户研讨效果的内容为关于曩昔的现实,所以一般选用曩昔时。如:After flights of less than two hours, 11% of the army pilots and 33% of the civilian pilots reported back pain.

  (c) 对研讨效果进行阐明或由其得出一般性推论时,多用现在时。如:The higher incidence of back pain in civilian pilots may be due to their greater accumulated flying time.

  (d) 不同效果之间或实验数据与理论模型之间进行比较时,多采一般现在时(这种比较联系多为不受时刻影响的逻辑上的现实)。如:These results agree well with the findings of Smith, et al.

  6. 评论部份包含什么内容?

  6.1 首要内容

  1) 首要数据特征的伟德开户

  2) 首要定论以及与前人观念的比照

  3) 本文的缺乏

  第三点,在一般作者看来不可取。现实上给出文章的缺乏恰恰是维护自己文章的重要手法。假如故意躲藏文章的缝隙,觉得他人看不出来,是十分不明智的。

  所谓缺乏,包含以下内容:

  a) 研讨的问题有点片面

  评论时必定要说,

  It should be noted that this study has examined only…

  We concentrate (focus) on only...

  We have to point out that we do not…

  Some limitations of this study are...

  b) 定论有些缺乏

  The results do not imply…

  The results can not be used to determine…

  be taken as evidence of…

  Unfortunately, we can not determine this from this data…

  Our results are lack of ...

  可是,在指出这些缺乏之后,随后必定要再一次加强本文的重要性以及或许采纳的手法来处理这些缺乏,为他人或许自己的下一步研讨打下浮笔。

  Notwithstanding its limitation, this study does suggest…

  However, these problems could be solved if we consider…

  Despite its preliminary character, this study can clearly indicate…

  用中文来说,这一部份是得心应手。把审稿人想到的问题提早给伟德告知,一起标明你已经在考虑这些问题,可是因为文章长度,实验进展或许实验手法的限制,暂时不能答复这些问题。可是,这些经过你的一些主张,这些问题在将来的研讨中游或许完成。

  P.S.

  深信观念的真实性:prove, demonstrate

  不确定性: show,indicate,found

  标明估测: imply,suggest

  6.2 关于定论中的时态:

  (1) 回忆研讨意图时,一般运用曩昔时。如:In this study, the effects of two different learning methods were investigated.

  (2) 假如所概述效果的有用性仅仅针对本次特定的研讨,需用曩昔时;假如具有遍及的含义,则用现在时。如: In the first series of trials, the experimental values were all lower than the theoretical predictions. The experimental and theoretical values for the yields agree well.

  (3) 论述由效果得出的推论时,一般运用现在时。如:The data reported here suggest (These findings support the hypothesis, Our data provide evidence) that the reaction rate may be determined by the amount of oxygen available.

  Some points of style

  (摘自伟德老外的Writing a Paper, 榜首点和最终一点是咱们常常用错的)

  Do not use nouns as adjectives (不要把名词当作形容词用)l

  Not: ATP formation; reaction product

  But: Formation of ATP; product of the reaction

  The word “this” must always be followed by a noun, so that its reference is explicit.l

  (This 后边有必要跟伟德名词)

  Not: This is a fast reaction; This leads us to conclude..,

  But: This reaction is fast; This observation leads us to conclude…

  Describe experimental results in the past tense. (实验效果用曩昔时)l

  Not: Addition of water gives product.

  But: Addition of water gave product.

  Use the active voice whenever possible. (尽或许运用自动语态)l

  Not: It was observed that the solution turned red.

  But: The solution turned red.

  OR We observed that the solution turned red.

  Complete all comparisons. (运用完好的比较方式 A is higher than B)l

  Not: The yield was higher using bromine.

  But: The yield was higher using bromine than chlorine.


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